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Travels in human-based development: Personal reflections on Manavodaya by Pete Richmond.

Manavodaya is a centre for learning in human-based development based in Lucknow India. It is recognised as a centre of excellence in promoting people’s participation through a process of self-help and empowerment. Although India-based, it has helped develop projects across the globe, from Participatory Development projects in Nepal of self reliance, pastoralists in the Afar region of Ethiopia  and in to supporting former child and women soldiers in post-civil war Eritrea. Manavodaya International UK was established in 2010 to take some of the learning from these human-based development initiatives and see if they could be applied in UK and other European contexts. More about the specific work of Manavodaya can be found on the websites of Manavodaya India and Manavodaya UK.

This article began as an attempt to give an organisational description of the impact of Manavodaya UK, but as it developed, it seemed more pressing to first reflect on what Manavodaya might offer the discourse on Personalisation. My specific concern was related to the observation that changing the language we use to describe how to support people well does not in itself change things. Rather, my contention is that positive change is related to how we conduct ourselves.

As a care assistant in the 1980’s and a social worker in the 1990’s onwards, I have witnessed (and been culpable in) implementation of a variety of approaches to individualised support and the tools to help achieve this. Some proved more effective than others, but on balance I would say that these have generally had a positive impact on us all – not just on those of us described as ‘service users’. These innovations are commonly known as Person Centred Approaches and/ or Person Centred Planning (often shortened to PCP). PCP developed from a marginal activity and mind-set into the mainstream and now every organisation concerned with care and support declares its PCP credentials.

However, as far back as 2000 Peter Kinsella had concerns about the fate of PCP: “Frequently seen as a tool to aid quality improvement, care planning, resource allocation and staff planning, it has become a darling of services”. This focus on PCP as a technological fix to what is essentially seen as an economic problem, resulted in “a bureaucratic and mechanical approach” that “indicates a superficial understanding of PCP; a desire to be seen to be doing the right thing and a continuing obsession with a mechanical approach to change that belies the necessary changes in culture and attitude.”[i]

Fourteen years on since he made these observations, I fear the situation has not improved – in fact it may have got worse with the confusing plethora of associated language that promises the ‘service user’ not just a PCP, but a ‘Personalised, Self-directed, Outcome focussed, Co-produced Plan’! It is perhaps too easy to be cynical in the face of so much jargon – and I do strongly believe there has been improvement – but often just improvement in the Plan, without a corresponding improvement in practice. There are many examples of individuals and organisations who have helped achieve transformational change for a significant minority of people, but in the majority of cases (at least in my experience) there is little or no real change in the degree of choice and control people with additional support needs exercise. For some, a better Plan has meant things getting a little better, but for many others, I fear the application of positive language to how their support is organised merely obscures a reality of no real change in control over one’s life.


[i] “What Are The Barriers In Relation To Person Centred Planning?” (2000) by Peter Kinsella. Available as a PDF from: www.ideaswa.net


Chasing Utopia?

Why is this and what can help create a true paradigm shift? Are we chasing a utopia or something more tangible? These are questions I have grappled with in my involvement with Manavodaya.

Group of people in Ethiopia with Varun
Varun and Amla Vidyarthi from Manavodaya facilitating training in Self-Help for Women War Fighters in Mekelle, Ethiopia.

Manavodaya in India has helped to create a paradigm shift in rural Indian villages where the caste system has been in place for hundreds of years and the social status of women has been that of subjugation. Manavodaya has successfully promoted empowerment of rural women by enabling social workers to explore paradigm shifts in their own lives and by developing systems that enable the poor to have better control over their lives. When I first heard of their work I was intrigued. How was it that such progress was possible in the context of real poverty and deprivation when here, in the wealthy and liberal UK, it still seemed elusive? I enrolled on the International Programme at the Manavodaya Institute in Lucknow and travelled to India.

Now one challenge for Manavodaya in the UK and Europe, is (with a foreign-sounding and perhaps mystical-sounding name) the impression that this might be some sort of cult or unfamiliar faith-based organisation (queue visions of Westerners heading out on the hippy trail seeking spiritual enlightenment… comparisons between myself and George Harrison are always welcome). However, Manavodaya is not big on gurus seeking to indoctrinate passive participants and I have yet to meet anybody involved with Manavodaya like that. In fact my experience has been the opposite.

The late Carl Poll was a leading figure in getting Manavodaya UK off the ground and it was his example that inspired me to find out more about Manavodaya for myself. Founder and former Chief Executive of Keying, a pivotal figure in the development early days of In-Controland co-founder of theCampaign for a Fair Society, Carl had a track record as a sound forward-thinker. He was also fiercely atheist with a strong instinct for sniffing out when people were making claims that are “quite frankly a load of bull”. He took the work of Manavodaya very seriously and that was recommendation enough for me.

Another challenge, is the possible perception that Manavodaya is too distant from the lives of those of us in Europe. What can an institute working with villagers in rural India teach us about social care in Sheffield, Ealing or Aberdeen? Manavodaya offers an approach that links individual and social transformation. For local authorities things like ‘community capacity building’ and improving ‘public participation’ are key priorities, partly stemming from having to implement policies (like personalisation) that give people more control. The advent of personalisation has been met in certain quarters by concerns about the readiness of communities and support organisations to respond to these consumers who will commission their own services and a trawling of long-standing Community-Based Development (CBD) initiatives by public sector bodies. A problem is that the outcomes desired for these communities are often defined externally, making CBD vulnerable to a similar fate to PCP.

Manavodaya’s approach is profoundly bottom-up and antithetical to the approach of many NGOs. It does not have a vision or predetermined outcomes beyond its fundamental concept of promoting human awakening. Manavodaya starts from the conviction that individuals, living in families and in communities, must be the catalyst for any change and have within them an inherent capacity to transform their own lives. The task is to enable people to individually and collectively determine their own vision. This requires not just harnessing individual and collective potential, but letting go of some of our own ideas about what we think other people need and reflecting on ourselves, as potential change agents.

 

We can’t change anything if we don’t attend to change in ourselves

Those involved in Manavodaya UK now come from a variety of backgrounds within the social care system, but are driven by a shared sense that the support people get is all too often just mediocre and that this will only change through more (genuinely) participatory approaches. Furthermore we all share, in different ways, a nagging feeling that simply telling other people they should do things differently will not achieve meaningful or sustainable change. Put simply, we can’t change anything for anyone if we don’t attend to change in ourselves. As a result, Manavodaya is having a profound influence on what we do in our own personal and our professional lives.

In its four years of existence Manavodaya has run several courses to introduce the Manavodaya approach to facilitation in Norway as well as the UK. In subsequent evaluations, participants have stated that the experience was powerful on a personal level. Incorporating the features of Manavodayan practice into their own lives is difficult to evaluate, but nonetheless small changes such as a commitment to local purchase and income sharing has reportedly increased. Some participants have made comparisons with Mindfulness which has recently received attention in the media, not least as increasing numbers of business leaders and even MP’s have promoted it as an introspective method to reduce stress and develop personal skills to succeed. Some Mindfulness scholars have observed that the appropriation of the contemplative tradition to increase one’s capacity for personal gain is missing the point and may prove ultimately self-defeating.

Manavodaya, along with many Mindfulness scholars, takes the view that if the practice is founded on a desire to achieve pre-determined ends – such as success in business – it is not about achieving a paradigm shift but merely reinforcing the status quo. Nor is it simply about arriving at a more desirable psychological state. Manavodaya is not about making people feel better in themselves so they can validate what they already do, ultimately it has to be about action. In Manavodaya we focus on the inner and outer dimensions of human experience.

Manavodaya, along with many Mindfulness scholars, takes the view that if the practice is founded on a desire to achieve pre-determined ends – such as success in business – it is not about achieving a paradigm shift but merely reinforcing the status quo. Nor is it simply about arriving at a more desirable psychological state. Manavodaya is not about making people feel better in themselves so they can validate what they already do, ultimately it has to be about action. In Manavodaya we focus on the inner and outer dimensions of human experience.

The specific techniques drawn from the contemplative tradition are about connection with ourselves and how we connect with others – with humility. It is not just about how we can help others have better lives, but the application of wellbeing for ourselves and for others. The training offered to facilitators helps us to question our motivations and (sometimes uncomfortably) the extent to which we are motivated by things like vanity and ambition. The Manavodaya approach is about radical action and changing lives through a paradigm shift that starts with honest self-appraisal and cultivation of personal discipline that puts in check our tendency to shift the focus to intervening in other people’s affairs. For someone from a social work background who has been trained to meddle this is quite a challenge.

Contemplative traditions have developed across the globe as humans and society have developed. In this respect Manavodaya is not offering a new remedy, although it is quite distinct in marrying deep contemplation with self-help, community development and civil society more broadly. Manavodaya in India has engendered personal, social, economic and political change within the communities facilitators have worked. For me personally, it is an antidote to the patriarchal, hierarchical systems in which many of us spend our lives. It offers a basis for commonplace and every day actions rather than grand gestures. This can manifest in little acts of human kindness that need no basis in religion or other extraneous rationales. Fundamental is a belief in the capacity of others, especially the disenfranchised – as opposed to arrogant “I will do good for you” approaches.

School for Scoundrels?

One might think this is all well and good, but is this possible for those of us who might often fail to be pious, always considered, always humble and have a leaning towards scoundrelism in one way or other. To this I would say that regardless of one’s personal failings, we all contain within us the power to act. To make a contribution, however small, in arousing the world, be it how we conduct our self with others, or are mindful of how we inadvertently prevent others from making their contribution because somehow we think they do not have capacity in one form or other.

For some reading this, or indeed for some who have participated in the Manavodaya facilitator programme, the prospect of achieving greater personal fulfilment and being more able to help others to help themselves may appear inspiring. Unfortunately, the reality of our everyday lives may get in the way of incorporating all the learning from Manavodaya to become the perfect facilitator. We must be supremely intelligent, free from our own and other’s human failings – perhaps living in a utopian society akin to that of the Houyhnhnum’s in Jonathan Swift’s Gulliver’s Travels.

The Houyhnhnum’s were intelligent horses who are free from human failing. These horses for all their high character and unfailing common sense are really rather dreary creatures who are mainly concerned with avoiding a fuss or problems. They live their subdued uneventful lives in a reasonable manner, free from quarrels, disorder or insecurity of any kind. But also free from passion including physical love. They choose their mates on eugenic principals and avoid an excess of affection and appear somewhat glad to die when their time comes. According to George Orwell, Swift is suggesting that take away human folly and scoundrelism, all you are left with is a tepid sort of existence hardly worth living.

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A Manavodaya Federation of Self Help groups Solidarity Campaign Procession in Uttar Pradesh

Manavodaya does not seek to make us always well balanced  reasonable human beings, merely to recognise our failings and not let this be a barrier to act in manner which helps all of us to connect, with ourselves and with others in order to move forward.


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Simon Duffy talks to Varun Vidyarthi, Glasgow 2014

Simon Duffy social Innovator and originator of Self Directed Support in the UK in Conversation with Varun Vidyarthi in Glasgow.

In front of an audience of people in Glasgow, Simon Duffy and Varun Vidyarthi identified parallels between their work in the social care sector in the UK and with the rural poor in India respectively. In the UK, Simon has written widely about how the model of Self Directed Support he devised several years ago has been distorted by government and some social care organisations. By design, the system was intended to help people with support needs get greater control over their support by being open and transparent and by letting people identify the resources they had, both financially and in skills they had.

Simon Duffy talking to Varun at the Partners for Inclusion conference.

The idea was that they could have greater control if they had a full picture of all the resources at their disposal, including their own natural assets and the money health and social care officials invested in special services for them. Simon regrets that in the hands of government and other vested interest, Self Directed Support has morphed into a complex system that few people understand and in some instances is a mask for  cutbacks. This is a long way from it’s intention of giving people control.

Likewise for Varun, People Based Development in India, which was pioneered by Manavodaya, was adopted on a much wider scale by government and other vested interest bodies – but in name only. Instead of people using self-help schemes to improve both their own and their community’s situations through local management, schemes developed which were distant from control in villages. This resulted in people being encouraged to take on personal debt they couldn’t afford and decisions becoming more distant from those who were seeking to take more control of their lives.

In both instances Simon and Varun reflected on the importance for approaches that seek for people to have greater control in their lives, to be managed locally; with integrity and have processes that can be understood by beneficiaries.

One of those in the audience who has experience of using support services later said:

‘I hadn’t thought of it this way before – that people on the other side of the world have many of the same problems as us with “them” [social workers and officials]…..  thinking they know best all the time and twisting words round so it’s hard to understand things’.

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Raising funds to Create new Facilitators

Manavodaya UK has linked up with Buzzbank to create a crowd funding project to support new facilitators from the rural poor in India.

Please visit: http://bit.ly/18cLMD8


If we don’t reach the first milestone no funds go to Manavodaya so please help if you can.

We hope some you will explore both this and the Manavodaya India website www.manavodaya.org.in and fine something that will make your life a little richer.

We would like to see some of you making a donation to campaign which will help begin the process of real change

We would love to see you not only make a donation but share this campaign with others and ask them to also make a donation By spreading the word this is how crowd funding works

On the buzzbank page you can make a donation direct or purchase a gift certificate and send to a friend ( but word of caution the gift certificate process does not allow us to claim gift aid from HMRC)

We may not change the world – maybe you wont either – but together we can contribute to real change by investing in some of the poorest and most disenfranchised people, who will change their world.

Manavodaya on Tyneside

Some Thoughts About How to Make a Difference in 2013

In 2012 a small group of workers in Tyneside met to think about how Manavodaya’s approach might be relevant on Tyneside. The group was made up mainly of professionals who work with people with learning disabilities and a couple of people working in community development.

The discussions centred on what the principles of the Indian organisation Manavodaya meant to personal development and social justice work in Tyneside. We mean by social justice work where a facilitator (volunteer or paid) is working with dispossessed or oppressed people to support them to claim equality.

Continue reading Manavodaya on Tyneside

Manvodaya course, Lillehammer, Norway, 2012

At the end of 2012, participants from both Norway and the UK attended the programme based in the beautiful surroundings of Nordsetter in the Mountains above Lillehammer. The course was facilitated by Anne Bregnballe and Bjarne Ovrelid, supported by Varun Vidyarthi from Manavodaya India.

Participants were able to hear first hand from Varun about the techniques used and the wider experience of Manavodaya India. How long standing barriers to the disenfranchised rural poor, such as bonded labour, uneconomic and unsustainable agricultural practices, women and girls educational opportunities are being overcome. Through the process of self- and collective reflection, participants were able to then share their experiences and consider common themes in work in India, Norway and the UK.

One participant, Ruth from Aberdeen, said:

‘I would recommend the course to everyone no matter what your field. It
helps clear the mind so you get more done by doing less… go figure! It
introduced me to yoga, which I still do every morning and its helped my
back pain a lot. I’m also more relaxed at work.’.

Scotland/Norway: November course

Manavodaya UK’s course in Scotland, scheduled for September, has been switched to Norway in November!

Our colleagues in Norway are organising this course and Varun Vidyarthi, from Manavodaya India, has just told them he is able to be there. This creates an opportunity for people from the UK to work with Varun and people in Norway. So we have decided to join forces.

The content of the course remains more or less the same – exploring how professionals can help to create genuine, sustainable social change.

The seminar will take place in Lillehammer, Norway, 15 – 18  November, 2012. The title is: Promoting human dignity in social work and community care – experiences and challenges.

The cost of the course is only £180 (227 euros) so that participants can buy their airfares.

Accommodation is in traditional Norwegian cabins with fire and sauna. There will be chances to go skiing, sledding and walking.

Read the full programme and get the application form below.

Continue reading Scotland/Norway: November course

International course in India 2013

Manavodaya India provisional course dates

10-23 February 2013

A two-week programme titled ‘People Based Development – Concept and Practice’ for participants from abroad, is a unique experience in participatory development in India. It combines inputs in classroom with field visits involving direct interaction with villagers. A number of UK colleagues are already signed up for the course.

The programme is based on the following lessons learned at Manavodaya:

  • Participatory development is a process that builds on people’s own capacity and resources and it can be initiated by outsiders.
  • The process of  participatory development is feasible even among the very poor and illiterate.
  • A successful participatory development process requires a clear vision, strategy and suitable values among facilitators of the process.
  • The process can be adopted among groups of marginalised or disabled people too.
  • Participants from earlier programmes have used the method among refugees in Norway as well as people with learning disabilities in the UK.

If you want to know more about Manavodaya’s work then you can visit the following websites.

http://manavodaya-uk.org.uk/
http://www.manavodaya.org.in/.

Course planned in partnership with Norway

In 2011, we held a successful course at Samye Ling in Scotland. Three participants came from Norway. They have had a long association with Manavodaya in India and are organising a course in Norway in October.

Manavodaya UK will support our Norwegian friends to arrange the course. We hope that Varun Vidyarthi will be present.

We will publish further details as soon as possible..

Tyneside meeting

Martin Donkin writes:

Thirteen people met on Tyneside on 11 February to consider the ideas and practice of Manavodaya. We began the day with yoga and meditation. We heard Pete Richmond and Doreen Kelly talk about the work of Manavodaya in rural India – helping villagers to set up self-help groups. Pete and Doreen described how Manavodaya International UK was trying to financially support this work in India and explore connections with and relevance to practice in the UK.

The discussion focused on three areas where there might be relevance to the UK.

  1. Inner developement – some participants already practiced some reflective techniques or gave carefull consideration to their behaviour and its impact upon people they were trying to support.
  2. Professional work – facilitators of work who support dispossessed or marginalised people often work flat out to keep their organisation going. There seems little time for reflection about how our values are reflected in our behaviour. Self-reflection will benefit our work and sense of fulfillment.
  3. Equality work – the group considered Manavodaya’s ‘outer development’ or equality work related to the UK. There were many good ideas for collective action: joining a local community  action group, environmental work, supporting the Hardest Hit campaign. The group was united by common values around social justice but wondered what would be the group’s common purpose. The Eight Steps in Action were thought to be a useful structure for future discussion while thinking further about how social justice practice could develop.

Some of the discussion was about the universality of the Eight Steps and how there were similar useful frameworks. Many of the group wanted to think more about them and meet again. Others unable to attend on the day can join the discussion then.

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